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ANGEO | Articles | Volume 36, issue 5
Ann. Geophys., 36, 1243–1254, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-36-1243-2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Ann. Geophys., 36, 1243–1254, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-36-1243-2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Regular paper 26 Sep 2018

Regular paper | 26 Sep 2018

The ionospheric response over the UK to major bombing raids during World War II

Christopher J. Scott and Patrick Major
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Cited articles  
Astafyeva, E., Shalimov, S., Olshanskaya, E., and Lognonné, P.: Ionospheric response to earthquakes of different magnitudes: Larger quakes perturb the ionosphere stronger and longer, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 1675–1681, https://doi.org/10.1002/grl.50398, 2013. 
Beker, C.: “The Luftwaffe war diaries”, Transworld Publishers Ltd, London, 1969. 
Blanc, E.: Observations in the upper atmosphere of infrasonic waves from natural or artificial sources: A summary, Ann. Geophys., 3, 673–688, 1985. 
Chree, C.: Some Phenomena of Sunspots and of Terrestrial Magnetism at Kew Observatory, Philos. T. R. Soc. A, 212, 75–116, 1913. 
Davis, C. J. and Johnson, C. G.: Lightning-induced intensification of the ionospheric sporadic-E layer, Nature, 435, 799–801, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature03638, 2005. 
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Short summary
The variability of the Earth's ionosphere (the electrified region of the Earth's upper atmosphere) results from external forcing from above (through solar activity and space weather effects) and from below (via natural sources such as lightning storms and tectonics). Bombing raids over Europe during World War II were used to determine the quantitative impact of explosions on the ionosphere. It was found that raids using more than 300 tonnes of explosives weakened the ionosphere for up to 5 h.
The variability of the Earth's ionosphere (the electrified region of the Earth's upper...
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