Journal cover Journal topic
Annales Geophysicae Sun, Earth, planets, and planetary systems An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Ann. Geophys., 35, 1341-1352, 2017
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Regular paper
15 Dec 2017
Relative outflow enhancements during major geomagnetic storms – Cluster observations
Audrey Schillings1,2, Hans Nilsson1,2, Rikard Slapak2, Masatoshi Yamauchi1, and Lars-Göran Westerberg3 1Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden
2Division of Space Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Kiruna, Sweden
3Division of Fluid and Experimental Mechanics, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden
Abstract. The rate of ion outflow from the polar ionosphere is known to vary by orders of magnitude, depending on the geomagnetic activity. However, the upper limit of the outflow rate during the largest geomagnetic storms is not well constrained due to poor spatial coverage during storm events. In this paper, we analyse six major geomagnetic storms between 2001 and 2004 using Cluster data. The six major storms fulfil the criteria of Dst  < −100 nT or Kp  > 7+. Since the shape of the magnetospheric regions (plasma mantle, lobe and inner magnetosphere) are distorted during large magnetic storms, we use both plasma beta (β) and ion characteristics to define a spatial box where the upward O+ flux scaled to an ionospheric reference altitude for the extreme event is observed. The relative enhancement of the scaled outflow in the spatial boxes as compared to the data from the full year when the storm occurred is estimated. Only O+ data were used because H+ may have a solar wind origin. The storm time data for most cases showed up as a clearly distinguishable separate peak in the distribution toward the largest fluxes observed. The relative enhancement in the outflow region during storm time is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher compared to less disturbed time. The largest relative scaled outflow enhancement is 83 (7 November 2004) and the highest scaled O+ outflow observed is 2  ×  1014 m−2 s−1 (29 October 2003).

Citation: Schillings, A., Nilsson, H., Slapak, R., Yamauchi, M., and Westerberg, L.-G.: Relative outflow enhancements during major geomagnetic storms – Cluster observations, Ann. Geophys., 35, 1341-1352,, 2017.
Publications Copernicus
Short summary
The Earth's atmosphere is constantly losing ions and in particular oxygen ions. This phenomenon is important to understand the atmospheric evolution on a large timescale. In this study, the O+ outflow is estimated during six extreme geomagnetic storms using the European Cluster mission data. These estimations are compared with average magnetospheric conditions and show that during those six extreme storms, the O+ outflow is approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher.
The Earth's atmosphere is constantly losing ions and in particular oxygen ions. This phenomenon...