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Annales Geophysicae An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Volume 34, issue 6
Ann. Geophys., 34, 557–564, 2016
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-34-557-2016
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Ann. Geophys., 34, 557–564, 2016
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-34-557-2016
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Regular paper 02 Jun 2016

Regular paper | 02 Jun 2016

Generalised partition functions: inferences on phase space distributions

Rudolf A. Treumann1,a and Wolfgang Baumjohann2 Rudolf A. Treumann and Wolfgang Baumjohann
  • 1Department of Geophysics and Environmental Sciences, Munich University, Munich, Germany
  • 2Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz, Austria
  • acurrently at: International Space Science Institute, Bern, Switzerland

Abstract. It is demonstrated that the statistical mechanical partition function can be used to construct various different forms of phase space distributions. This indicates that its structure is not restricted to the Gibbs–Boltzmann factor prescription which is based on counting statistics. With the widely used replacement of the Boltzmann factor by a generalised Lorentzian (also known as the q-deformed exponential function, where κ = 1∕|q − 1|, with κ, q ∈ R) both the kappa-Bose and kappa-Fermi partition functions are obtained in quite a straightforward way, from which the conventional Bose and Fermi distributions follow for κ → ∞. For κ ≠ ∞ these are subject to the restrictions that they can be used only at temperatures far from zero. They thus, as shown earlier, have little value for quantum physics. This is reasonable, because physical κ systems imply strong correlations which are absent at zero temperature where apart from stochastics all dynamical interactions are frozen. In the classical large temperature limit one obtains physically reasonable κ distributions which depend on energy respectively momentum as well as on chemical potential. Looking for other functional dependencies, we examine Bessel functions whether they can be used for obtaining valid distributions. Again and for the same reason, no Fermi and Bose distributions exist in the low temperature limit. However, a classical Bessel–Boltzmann distribution can be constructed which is a Bessel-modified Lorentzian distribution. Whether it makes any physical sense remains an open question. This is not investigated here. The choice of Bessel functions is motivated solely by their convergence properties and not by reference to any physical demands. This result suggests that the Gibbs–Boltzmann partition function is fundamental not only to Gibbs–Boltzmann but also to a large class of generalised Lorentzian distributions as well as to the corresponding nonextensive statistical mechanics.

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It is demonstrated that the statistical mechanical partition function can be used to construct various different forms of phase space distributions. This indicates that its structure is not restricted to the Gibbs–Boltzmann factor prescription based on counting statistics. Consequences concerning generalised Lorentzians and more general distribution functions are discussed.
It is demonstrated that the statistical mechanical partition function can be used to construct...
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