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Annales Geophysicae An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Volume 34, issue 4 | Copyright
Ann. Geophys., 34, 427-436, 2016
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-34-427-2016
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Regular paper 14 Apr 2016

Regular paper | 14 Apr 2016

Modelling natural electromagnetic interference in man-made conductors for space weather applications

Larisa Trichtchenko Larisa Trichtchenko
  • Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Canada

Abstract. Power transmission lines above the ground, cables and pipelines in the ground and under the sea, and in general all man-made long grounded conductors are exposed to the variations of the natural electromagnetic field. The resulting currents in the networks (commonly named geomagnetically induced currents, GIC), are produced by the conductive and/or inductive coupling and can compromise or even disrupt system operations and, in extreme cases, cause power blackouts, railway signalling mis-operation, or interfere with pipeline corrosion protection systems. To properly model the GIC in order to mitigate their impacts it is necessary to know the frequency dependence of the response of these systems to the geomagnetic variations which naturally span a wide frequency range. For that, the general equations of the electromagnetic induction in a multi-layered infinitely long cylinder (representing cable, power line wire, rail or pipeline) embedded in uniform media have been solved utilising methods widely used in geophysics. The derived electromagnetic fields and currents include the effects of the electromagnetic properties of each layer and of the different types of the surrounding media. This exact solution then has been used to examine the electromagnetic response of particular samples of long conducting structures to the external electromagnetic wave for a wide range of frequencies. Because the exact solution has a rather complicated structure, simple approximate analytical formulas have been proposed, analysed and compared with the results from the exact model. These approximate formulas show good coincidence in the frequency range spanning from geomagnetic storms (less than mHz) to pulsations (mHz to Hz) to atmospherics (kHz) and above, and can be recommended for use in space weather applications.

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Short summary
Power transmission lines above the ground, cables and pipelines, and, in general, all man-made long grounded conductors are exposed to the variations of natural electromagnetic field of wide frequency range. This interference often can compromise the systems operations. Paper offers frequency dependent approach in modelling the response of these systems to the geomagnetic variations. The formulas were proposed, analysed, verified and recommended for use in space weather applications.
Power transmission lines above the ground, cables and pipelines, and, in general, all man-made...
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