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Annales Geophysicae An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Volume 27, issue 12
Ann. Geophys., 27, 4409–4427, 2009
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-27-4409-2009
© Author(s) 2009. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Ann. Geophys., 27, 4409–4427, 2009
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-27-4409-2009
© Author(s) 2009. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

  04 Dec 2009

04 Dec 2009

Determination of the electron temperature in the modified ionosphere over HAARP using the HF pumped Stimulated Brillouin Scatter (SBS) emission lines

P. A. Bernhardt1, C. A. Selcher1, R. H. Lehmberg1, S. Rodriguez2, J. Thomason2, M. McCarrick3, and G. Frazer4 P. A. Bernhardt et al.
  • 1Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375, USA
  • 2Radar Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375, USA
  • 3BAE Systems, Washington, D.C., USA
  • 4ISR Division, DSTO, Edinburgh, SA, Australia

Abstract. An ordinary mode electromagnetic wave can decay into an ion acoustic wave and a scattered electromagnetic wave by a process called stimulated Brillouin scatter (SBS). The first detection of this process during ionospheric modification with high power radio waves was reported by Norin et al. (2009) using the HAARP transmitter in Alaska. Subsequent experiments have provided additional verification of this process and quantitative interpretation of the scattered wave frequency offsets to yield measurements of the electron temperatures in the heated ionosphere. Using the SBS technique, electron temperatures between 3000 and 4000 K were measured over the HAARP facility. The matching conditions for decay of the high frequency pump wave show that in addition to the production of an ion-acoustic wave, an electrostatic ion cyclotron wave may also be produced by the generalized SBS processes. Based on the matching condition theory, the first profiles of the scattered wave amplitude are produced using the stimulated Brillouin scatter (SBS) matching conditions. These profiles are consistent with maximum ionospheric interactions at the upper-hybrid resonance height and at a region just below the plasma resonance altitude where the pump wave electric fields reach their maximum values.

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