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Annales Geophysicae An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Ann. Geophys., 26, 1255-1268, 2008
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-26-1255-2008
© Author(s) 2008. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
 
28 May 2008
Emerging pattern of global change in the upper atmosphere and ionosphere
J. Laštovička1, R. A. Akmaev2, G. Beig3, J. Bremer4, J. T. Emmert5, C. Jacobi6, M. J. Jarvis7, G. Nedoluha5, Yu. I. Portnyagin8, and T. Ulich9 1Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Bocni II, 14131 Prague, Czech Republic
2Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
3Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune-411 008, India
4Leibnitz-Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Schloss-Street 6, 18225, Kühlungsborn, Germany
5Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375, USA
6Institute for Meteorology, University of Leipzig, Stephanstr. 3, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
7British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, CB3 0ET, UK
8Institute for Experimental Meteorology, Lenin Str. 82, Obninsk 249038, Russia
9Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory, Tähteläntie 62, 99600 Sodankylä, Finland
Abstract. In the upper atmosphere, greenhouse gases produce a cooling effect, instead of a warming effect. Increases in greenhouse gas concentrations are expected to induce substantial changes in the mesosphere, thermosphere, and ionosphere, including a thermal contraction of these layers. In this article we construct for the first time a pattern of the observed long-term global change in the upper atmosphere, based on trend studies of various parameters. The picture we obtain is qualitative, and contains several gaps and a few discrepancies, but the overall pattern of observed long-term changes throughout the upper atmosphere is consistent with model predictions of the effect of greenhouse gas increases. Together with the large body of lower atmospheric trend research, our synthesis indicates that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases are affecting the atmosphere at nearly all altitudes between ground and space.

Citation: Laštovička, J., Akmaev, R. A., Beig, G., Bremer, J., Emmert, J. T., Jacobi, C., Jarvis, M. J., Nedoluha, G., Portnyagin, Yu. I., and Ulich, T.: Emerging pattern of global change in the upper atmosphere and ionosphere, Ann. Geophys., 26, 1255-1268, https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-26-1255-2008, 2008.
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