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Annales Geophysicae An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Volume 17, issue 8
Ann. Geophys., 17, 1040-1052, 1999
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00585-999-1040-2
© European Geosciences Union 1999
Ann. Geophys., 17, 1040-1052, 1999
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00585-999-1040-2
© European Geosciences Union 1999

  31 Aug 1999

31 Aug 1999

Ionospheric measurements during the CRISTA/MAHRSI campaign: their implications and comparison with previous campaigns

J. Laštovicka1, D. Pancheva2, D. Altadill3, E. A. Benediktov4, J. Boška1, J. Bremer5, M. Dick6, K. Igarashi7, P. Mlch1, B. A. de la Morena8, Z. T. Rapoport9, V. A. Vyakhirev4, B. O. Vugmeister10, X. Zhang11, and B. Zolesi12 J. Laštovicka et al.
  • 1Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Bocni II, Prague 4, Czech Republic USA
  • 2Geophysical Institute, "Acad.G.Bonchev'' 3, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
  • 3Observatori de l'Ebre, 43520 Roquetes (Tarragona), Spain
  • 4NIRFI, B. Pechorskaya St. 25/14, 603600 Nizhni Novgorod, Russia
  • 5Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Schlossstrasse 4-6, D-18221 Kühlungsborn, Germany
  • 6Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX, UK
  • 7Communication Research Laboratory, 4-2-1 Nukuikita, Koganei, Tokyo 184, Japan
  • 8INTA, Centro Experimental de "El Arenosillo'', 21130 Mazagon (Huelva), Spain
  • 9IZMIRAN, 142092 Troitsk, Moscow Region, Russiana), Spain
  • 10Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics, PO Box 4026, 664033 Irkutsk, Russia
  • 11Wuhan Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, PO Box 72003, Wuchang, Wuhan 430072, China
  • 12Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica, Via di Vigna Murata 605, Roma 00143, Italy

Abstract. The CRISTA/MAHRSI experiment on board a space shuttle was accompanied by a broad campaign of rocket, balloon and ground-based measurements. Supporting lower ionospheric ground-based measurements were run in Europe and Eastern Asia between 1 October-30 November, 1994. Results of comparisons with long ionospheric data series together with short-term comparisons inside the interval October-November, 1994, showed that the upper middle atmosphere 
(h = 80-100 km) at middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere in the interval of the CRISTA/MAHRSI experiment (4-12 November, 1994) was very close to its expected climatological state. In other words, the average results of the experiment can be used as climatological data, at least for the given area/altitudes. The role of solar/geomagnetic and "meteorological" control of the lower ionosphere is investigated and compared with the results of MAP/WINE, MAC/SINE and DYANA campaigns. The effects of both solar/geomagnetic and global meteorological factors on the lower ionosphere are found to be weak during autumn 1994 compared to those in MAP/WINE and DYANA winters, and they are even slightly weaker than those in MAP/SINE summer. The comparison of the four campaigns suggests the following overall pattern: in winter the lower ionosphere at northern middle latitudes appears to be fairly well "meteorologically" controlled with a very weak solar influence. In summer, solar influence is somewhat stronger and dominates the weak "meteorological" influence, but the overall solar/meteorological control is weaker than in winter. In autumn we find the weakest overall solar/meteorological control, local effects evidently dominate.

Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere · atmosphere interactions; mid-latitude ionosphere)

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