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Annales Geophysicae An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Volume 12, issue 6
Ann. Geophys., 12, 574–584, 1994
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00585-994-0574-6
© European Geosciences Union 1994
Ann. Geophys., 12, 574–584, 1994
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00585-994-0574-6
© European Geosciences Union 1994

  31 May 1994

31 May 1994

Vegetation pattern of Istanbul from the Landsat data and the relationship with meteorological parameters

Zafer Aslan, Krishnaier Natarajan, and Mehmet Tankut Zafer Aslan et al.

Abstract. This paper discusses the preliminary results of a study on the vegetation pattern and its relationship with meteorological parameters in and around Istanbul. The study covers an area of over 6800 km2 consisting of urban and suburban centers, and uses the visible and near-infrared bands of Landsat. The spatial variation of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and meteorological parameters such as sensible heat flux, momentum flux, relative humidity, moist static energy, rainfall rate and temperature have been investigated based on observations in ten stations in the European (Thracian) and Anatolian parts of Istanbul. NDVI values have been evaluated from the Landsat data for a single day, viz. 24 October 1986, using ERDAS in ten different classes. The simultaneous spatial variations of sensible heat and momentum fluxes have been computed from the wind and temperature profiles using the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. The static energy variations are based on the surface meteorological observations. There is very good correlation between NDVI and rainfall rate. Good correlation also exists between: NDVI and relative humidity; NDVI, sensible heat flux and relative humidity; NDVI, momentum flux and emissivity; and NDVI, sensible heat flux and emissivity. The study suggests that the momentum flux has only marginal impact on NDVI. Due to rapid urbanization,the coastal belt is characterized by reduced NDVI compared to the interior areas, suggesting that thermodynamic discontinuities considerably influence the vegetation pattern. This study is useful for the investigation of small-scale circulation models, especially in urban and suburban areas where differential heating leads to the formation of heat islands. In the long run, such studies on a global scale are vital to gain accurate, timely information on the distribution of vegetation on the earth's surface. This may lead to an understanding of how changes in land cover affect phenomena as diverse as the atmospheric CO2 concentrations, the hydrological cycle and the energy balance at the surface-atmosphere interface.

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