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Annales Geophysicae An open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Ann. Geophys., 35, 453-464, 2017
http://www.ann-geophys.net/35/453/2017/
doi:10.5194/angeo-35-453-2017
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Regular paper
21 Mar 2017
Diurnal variations in integrated water vapor derived from a GPS ground network in the Volga–Ural region of Russia
Vladislav V. Kalinnikov and Olga G. Khutorova Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kremlevskaya Str. 18, 420008, Kazan, Russia
Abstract. In this article, we present estimates of diurnal and semidiurnal harmonics of variations in integrated water vapor content (IWV) according to data from 16 GPS stations in the Volga–Ural region of Russia during 2013–2015. Amplitudes of diurnal harmonics are maximal in summer and reach values from 0.37 to 1.01 mm. Time at the maximum of diurnal harmonic is typically in the period from 14:00 to 17:00. Semidiurnal harmonics have the largest amplitudes in spring and autumn, but they do not exceed 0.19 mm. A comparison of the diurnal cycle from GPS data and ERA-Interim reanalysis has revealed significant differences in the phase. It is established that, as a result of evaporation from the underlying surface and convective lifting of moist air, the summer diurnal variations in IWV and surface density of water vapor are in antiphase. The diurnal cycle of IWV is determined by surface air temperature to be 88 % in summer and less than at 35 % in other seasons. It is noted that maximal amplitudes of diurnal harmonic of IWV are observed at stations located on the windward side of mountains.

Citation: Kalinnikov, V. V. and Khutorova, O. G.: Diurnal variations in integrated water vapor derived from a GPS ground network in the Volga–Ural region of Russia, Ann. Geophys., 35, 453-464, doi:10.5194/angeo-35-453-2017, 2017.
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Short summary
Here, we present estimates of diurnal and semidiurnal harmonics of variations in integrated water vapor content (IWV) according to GPS data in the Volga–Ural region during 2013–2015. Comparison of diurnal cycle from GPS data and ERA-Interim reanalysis has revealed significant differences in the phase. It is found that, as a result of evaporation from underlying surface and convective lifting of moist air, the summer diurnal variations in IWV and surface density of water vapor are in antiphase.
Here, we present estimates of diurnal and semidiurnal harmonics of variations in integrated...
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