Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, USA
Received: 28 Jul 2016 – Revised: 26 Oct 2016 – Accepted: 05 Nov 2016 – Published: 02 Dec 2016
Abstract. In this paper we develop a model for the anisotropic Maxwell–Jüttner distribution and examine its properties. First, we provide the characteristic conditions that the modeling of consistent and well-defined anisotropic Maxwell–Jüttner distributions needs to fulfill. Then, we examine several models, showing their possible advantages and/or failures in accordance to these conditions. We derive a consistent model, and examine its properties and its connection with thermodynamics. We show that the temperature equals the average of the directional temperature-like components, as it holds for the classical, anisotropic Maxwell distribution. We also derive the internal energy and Boltzmann–Gibbs entropy, where we show that both are maximized for zero anisotropy, that is, the isotropic Maxwell–Jüttner distribution.
Livadiotis, G.: Modeling anisotropic Maxwell–Jüttner distributions: derivation and properties, Ann. Geophys., 34, 1145-1158, doi:10.5194/angeo-34-1145-2016, 2016.