Journal cover Journal topic
Annales Geophysicae An open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Ann. Geophys., 32, 383-399, 2014
http://www.ann-geophys.net/32/383/2014/
doi:10.5194/angeo-32-383-2014
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Regular paper
11 Apr 2014
Reconstruction of geomagnetic activity and near-Earth interplanetary conditions over the past 167 yr – Part 4: Near-Earth solar wind speed, IMF, and open solar flux
M. Lockwood1, H. Nevanlinna2, L. Barnard1, M. J. Owens1, R. G. Harrison1, A. P. Rouillard3, and C. J. Scott1 1Meteorology Department, University of Reading, Reading, Berkshire, UK
2Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 503, 00101 Helsinki, Finland
3Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, 9 Ave. du Colonel Roche, BP 44 346, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 4, France
Abstract. In the concluding paper of this tetralogy, we here use the different geomagnetic activity indices to reconstruct the near-Earth interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and solar wind flow speed, as well as the open solar flux (OSF) from 1845 to the present day. The differences in how the various indices vary with near-Earth interplanetary parameters, which are here exploited to separate the effects of the IMF and solar wind speed, are shown to be statistically significant at the 93% level or above. Reconstructions are made using four combinations of different indices, compiled using different data and different algorithms, and the results are almost identical for all parameters. The correction to the aa index required is discussed by comparison with the Ap index from a more extensive network of mid-latitude stations. Data from the Helsinki magnetometer station is used to extend the aa index back to 1845 and the results confirmed by comparison with the nearby St Petersburg observatory. The optimum variations, using all available long-term geomagnetic indices, of the near-Earth IMF and solar wind speed, and of the open solar flux, are presented; all with ±2σ uncertainties computed using the Monte Carlo technique outlined in the earlier papers. The open solar flux variation derived is shown to be very similar indeed to that obtained using the method of Lockwood et al. (1999).

Citation: Lockwood, M., Nevanlinna, H., Barnard, L., Owens, M. J., Harrison, R. G., Rouillard, A. P., and Scott, C. J.: Reconstruction of geomagnetic activity and near-Earth interplanetary conditions over the past 167 yr – Part 4: Near-Earth solar wind speed, IMF, and open solar flux, Ann. Geophys., 32, 383-399, doi:10.5194/angeo-32-383-2014, 2014.
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